Arthur Tudor: The Tragic Prince

Arthur Tudor was born on September 19 or 20, 1486, to King Henry VII of England and Queen Elizabeth. A year before his birth, Henry had fought Arthur’s maternal uncle, King Richard III, for control of the English throne. On August 22, 1485, both men’s forces clashed at the Battle of Bosworth Field during the final phase of the War […]

Otto III: The Ambitious Emperor

Otto III was born in July 980 to Holy Roman Emperor Otto II and Empress Theophano. Otto’s grandfather, Emperor Otto I, had established the Ottonian dynasty after his coronation in 962. As the emperor’s only son, the young Otto was groomed as his father’s heir. Three years after Otto’s birth, the emperor had his son elected German king. When Otto […]

Philip I of Castile: The Pivotal King

Philip I of Castile was born on July 22, 1478, in the Netherlands. His father, Maximilian, was the son of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III and a member of the Austrian Hapsburg dynasty. His mother, Marie, was the French Duchess of Burgundy. Two years before Philip’s birth, Marie faced pressure from King Louis XI of France to marry his heir, […]

Joan I of Naples: The Headstrong Queen

Joan I was born in 1326. Her grandfather, King Robert, ruled Naples from the early to mid-1300s. During his reign, Naples experienced economic prosperity and stability. Robert encouraged learning, and his kingdom flourished as a center of education. Due to his respected leadership, the king became known as Robert the Wise. Towards the end of his reign, Robert faced a […]

Afonso I of Portugal: The Founder King

Afonso I was born between 1109/1111 in Guimaraes, Portucale (Portugal). Through his parents, the young nobleman had a prestigious pedigree. Afonso’s father, Henry of Burgundy, descended from the French Capetian dynasty. Afonso’s mother, Teresa, was Emperor Alfonso VI of Leon’s illegitimate daughter. Henry of Burgundy had initially come to Portucale through a family connection. Alfonso’s wife, Queen Constance, was Henry’s […]