Alfonso X of Castile: The Cultured King

Alfonso X was born on November 23, 1221, in Burgos, Castile. At the age of 9, the prince’s father, King Ferdinand III, inherited the crown of Leon from his father, Alfonso IX. Since he already ruled Castile, Ferdinand combined both crowns to expand his kingdom, becoming the King of Castile and Leon. As a warrior ruler, Ferdinand fought against Muslims […]

Piero de’ Medici: The Underestimated Ruler

Piero de’ Medici was born around 1416 in Florence, Italy. The eldest son of Cosimo de’ Medici, Piero was groomed from a young age to become a banker. Before his birth, Cosimo had worked with his father, Giovanni, to expand the Italian Medici bank into several European branches. Due to Cosimo’s cunning and business savvy, the Medici bank became the […]

Otto IV: The Deposed Emperor

Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV was born around 1175 into the German Welf dynasty. His father, Henry, was the Duke of Saxony and Brunswick, while his mother, Matilda, was King Henry II of England’s eldest daughter. At the time of Otto’s birth, Duke Henry had been at the height of his power. However, his arrogance caused his fellow Saxon nobles […]

Alexander III of Scotland: The Golden King

Alexander III was born on September 4, 1241, to King Alexander II and Queen Marie de Coucy. As his father’s only son, the prince became heir upon his birth. Unfortunately for Alexander, he didn’t get to enjoy his childhood for long. At the young age of seven, the prince became king after his father’s death on July 6, 1249. Due […]

Piero de’ Medici: The Unfortunate Ruler

Piero de’ Medici was born on February 15, 1472, in Florence, Tuscany, Italy, to Lorenzo de’ Medici. At the time of his birth, Piero’s father and uncle, Giuliano, jointly ruled Florence. Although outwardly a republic, both men controlled the city behind the scenes. Piero’s great-grandfather, Cosimo de’ Medici, used his banking wealth to become the unofficial Lord of Florence in […]