Posts

Lorenzo de’ Medici: The Magnificent Ruler

Family Background On January 1, 1449, Lorenzo de’ Medici was born in Florence, Italy. The Medici were an influential family that had gained their wealth through banking. Lorenzo’s grandfather, Cosimo, had established many branches throughout Europe. In turn, his banking abilities made him one of the wealthiest men of his time. Cosimo later used his money to gain political power […]

Calixtus III: The First Borgia Pope

Early Life On December 31, 1378, Pope Calixtus III was born Alonso Borgia in Jativa, Aragon (Spain). The Borgias were an aristocratic family that had gained prestige during the reign of King James I. In 1240, Alonso’s ancestor, Esteban de Borja, had played a role in expelling the Muslims in Valencia. In gratitude, James ennobled the Borgia family. By the […]

Philip III of France: The Bold King

Early Life On April 3, 1245, Philip III was born to King Louis IX and Queen Margaret in Poissy, France. As the king’s second son, Philip wasn’t intended to inherit the French throne. However, upon his older brother Louis’s death in 1260, the prince became the new heir. During his reign, King Louis had gained a reputation as a respected […]

The Battle of Tewkesbury

Background The battle of Tewkesbury began as a political power struggle between the Lancastrians and Yorkists. Since 1399, the Lancastrians had ruled England. Although not having the strongest claim to the throne, Henry IV successfully overthrew Richard II. As a result, the new king faced many rebellions during his reign. After crushing multiple revolts, Henry passed on a secure throne […]

The House of Lancaster

Background The house of Lancaster originated in the form of a title in 1267. In 1267, King Henry III of England granted his youngest son, Edmund, the earldom of Lancaster. Through Edmund, the title would pass to his sons, Thomas and Henry. After Henry’s death, his son, Henry, would become the first duke of Lancaster. Upon his death in 1361, […]