Sancho I of Portugal: The Populator King

Sancho I of Portugal was born on November 11, 1154, in Coimbra, Portugal. The first legitimate surviving son of King Afonso I, the prince became his father’s heir. Fifteen years before his birth, Afonso established Portugal as an independent kingdom. However, Portugal’s independence remained at risk. To secure his kingdom against neighboring Leon and Castile, Afonso allied himself with the […]

Afonso II of Portugal: The Fat King

Afonso II of Portugal was born on April 23, 1185, to King Sancho I and Queen Dulce of Aragon. The first legitimate son, Afonso, became his father’s heir at birth. In 1139, the prince’s grandfather, Afonso I, established Portugal as an independent kingdom. Although he made strides in securing the new kingdom’s standing, Afonso left behind many unresolved issues. Upon […]

John II of Castile: The Feeble King

John II of Castile was born on March 6, 1405, in Toro, Castile. The first-born son of King Henry III and Queen Catherine, John was the couple’s third child. A year after the prince’s birth, Henry died from illness at the age of 27. Through his efforts, the king left behind a stable kingdom with a prosperous economy to his […]

Sancho IV of Castile: The Troubled King

Sancho IV of Castile was born on May 12, 1258, in Valladolid, Castile. The second son of King Alfonso X and Queen Violant of Aragon, Prince Sancho wasn’t intended to inherit the throne. Instead, the prince’s elder brother, Ferdinand, was his father’s heir. As he grew, Sancho became an ambitious yet ruthless man. It’s unknown when he began harboring a […]

Alfonso XI of Castile: The Vicious King

Alfonso XI of Castile was born on August 13, 1311, in Salamanca, Castile. The son of King Ferdinand IV and Queen Constance of Portugal, the prince succeeded his father at only a year old. Due to his young age, a regency formed of royal relatives to govern on his behalf. However, several members, including Queen Constance, died over a 14-year […]