Spain

Spanish people and events during the European Middle Ages.

John II of Castile: The Feeble King

John II of Castile was born on March 6, 1405, in Toro, Castile. The first-born son of King Henry III and Queen Catherine, John was the couple’s third child. A year after the prince’s birth, Henry died from illness at the age of 27. Through his efforts, the king left behind a stable kingdom with a prosperous economy to his […]

Sancho IV of Castile: The Troubled King

Sancho IV of Castile was born on May 12, 1258, in Valladolid, Castile. The second son of King Alfonso X and Queen Violant of Aragon, Prince Sancho wasn’t intended to inherit the throne. Instead, the prince’s elder brother, Ferdinand, was his father’s heir. As he grew, Sancho became an ambitious yet ruthless man. It’s unknown when he began harboring a […]

Alfonso XI of Castile: The Vicious King

Alfonso XI of Castile was born on August 13, 1311, in Salamanca, Castile. The son of King Ferdinand IV and Queen Constance of Portugal, the prince succeeded his father at only a year old. Due to his young age, a regency formed of royal relatives to govern on his behalf. However, several members, including Queen Constance, died over a 14-year […]

Henry IV of Castile: The Impotent King

Henry IV of Castile was born on January 25, 1425, in Valladolid, Castile. The son of King John II and Queen Maria of Aragon, the prince would outlive his three siblings. During Henry’s childhood, John experienced a rough reign and struggled as a ruler. Weak-willed and politically incompetent, John relied heavily on his favorite advisor, Alvaro de Luna. Although a […]

Alfonso X of Castile: The Cultured King

Alfonso X of Castile was born on November 23, 1221, in Burgos, Castile. At the age of 9, the prince’s father, King Ferdinand III, inherited the crown of Leon from his father, Alfonso IX. Since he already ruled Castile, Ferdinand combined both crowns to expand his kingdom, becoming the King of Castile and Leon. As a warrior ruler, Ferdinand fought […]