England

English people and events during the European Middle Ages.

The House of Lancaster

Background The house of Lancaster originated in the form of a title in 1267. In 1267, King Henry III of England granted his youngest son, Edmund, the earldom of Lancaster. Through Edmund, the title would pass to his sons, Thomas and Henry. After Henry’s death, his son, Henry, would become the first duke of Lancaster. Upon his death in 1361, […]

Richard II of England: The Tyrant King

Early Life Richard II was born on January 6, 1367 in Bordeaux, France. His father, Edward the Black Prince, was the son and heir of King Edward III of England. The younger of Prince Edward’s sons, Richard was initially third in line to the English throne. However, the prince experienced a rapid rise in the succession during the 1370s. Richard’s […]

The Battle of Crecy

Background The Battle of Crecy originated on February 1, 1328, with King Charles IV of France’s death. Since the king died without leaving behind a son, the Capetian dynasty ended. As a result, the question of succession arose amongst the French. After much debate, the succession came down to Philip of Valois and King Edward III of England. Philip of […]

Edward IV of England: The Yorkist King

Early Life Edward IV was born on April 28, 1442, to Richard, Duke of York, and Cecily Neville. Through his father, Edward descended from two of King Edward III’s sons: Lionel and Edmund. At the time of his birth, the Lancastrian King Henry VI ruled England. Henry’s grandfather, Henry IV, had overthrown his cousin, Richard II, in September 1399. In […]

The Battle of Bouvines

Background Sixty years before the Battle of Bouvines, Henry II of England established the Angevin Empire. Through inheritance and marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine, the king brought England and Western France under his control in 1154. Alarmed by this development, Louis VII of France sought to undermine the empire. Although the king spent his reign attempting to, he ultimately proved […]