Holy Roman Empire

Individuals and events in the Holy Roman Empire during the European Middle Ages.

Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV

Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV was born around 1175 into the German Welf dynasty. His father, Henry, was the Duke of Saxony and Brunswick, while his mother, Matilda, was King Henry II of England’s eldest daughter. At the time of Otto’s birth, Duke Henry had been at the height of his power. However, his arrogance caused his fellow Saxon nobles […]

Holy Roman Emperor Otto III

Holy Roman Emperor Otto III was born in July 980 to Holy Roman Emperor Otto II and Empress Theophano. Otto’s grandfather, Emperor Otto I, had established the Ottonian dynasty after his coronation in 962. As the emperor’s only son, the young Otto was groomed as his father’s heir. Three years after Otto’s birth, the emperor had his son elected German […]

Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV

Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV was born on May 14, 1316 in Prague, Czechoslovakia. Originally named Wenceslas, the young boy was born into Bohemian royalty. His father, John of Luxembourg, was the king of Bohemia. Wenceslas’ mother, Elizabeth, was a member of Bohemia’s former ruling family: the Premsylid. The Premsylid dynasty had ruled Bohemia since the 9th century. After the […]

Holy Roman Emperor Otto II

Holy Roman Emperor Otto II was born around 955. The only surviving son of Holy Roman Emperor Otto I and his second wife, Adelaide, Prince Otto became his father’s heir at a young age. During his reign, Otto I successfully consolidated his power over the empire. To ensure the succession, Otto had his son crowned co-king of Germany and Italy […]

The Battle of Bouvines

Sixty years before the Battle of Bouvines, Henry II of England established the Angevin Empire. Through inheritance and marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine, the king brought England and Western France under his control in 1154. Alarmed by this development, Louis VII of France sought to undermine the empire. Although the king spent his reign attempting to, he ultimately proved unsuccessful. […]