Richard II of England: The Tyrant King

Early Life Richard II was born on January 6, 1367 in Bordeaux, France. His father, Edward the Black Prince, was the son and heir of King Edward III of England. The younger of Prince Edward’s sons, Richard was initially third in line to the English throne. However, the prince experienced a rapid rise in the succession during the 1370s. Richard’s […]

Robert III of Scotland: The Pitiful King

Early Life Robert III was born around 1337 as the eldest son of Robert Stewart. Christened John, the future king descended from King Robert I through his maternal grandmother, Marjorie. In 1362, John joined his father in a rebellion against his great-uncle, King David II. The revolt failed, and the king imprisoned John. Despite John’s attempt to overthrow him, David […]

Isabella I of Castile: The Catholic Queen

Early Life Isabella I was born on April 22, 1451, to King John II and Queen Isabella. In July 1454, the king died and was succeeded by Isabella’s older half-brother, Henry IV. The new king viewed his younger half-siblings as a threat to his power. As a result, Henry treated them poorly. Although sent away from court, the king later […]

The Battle of Crecy

Background The Battle of Crecy originated on February 1, 1328, with King Charles IV of France’s death. Since the king died without leaving behind a son, the Capetian dynasty ended. As a result, the question of succession arose amongst the French. After much debate, the succession came down to Philip of Valois and King Edward III of England. Philip of […]

Charles IV: The Diplomatic Emperor

Early Life Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV was born on May 14, 1316 in Prague, Czechoslovakia. Originally named Wenceslas, the young boy was born into Bohemian royalty. His father, John of Luxembourg, was the king of Bohemia. Wenceslas’ mother, Elizabeth, was a member of Bohemia’s former ruling family: the Premsylid. The Premsylid dynasty had ruled Bohemia since the 9th century. […]