Holy Roman Empire

Individuals and events in the Holy Roman Empire during the European Middle Ages.

The Third Crusade (1187-1192)

The Third Crusade originated in 1187. During 1187, the Christian kingdom of Jerusalem was surrounded. Muslim forces, led by the formidable Saladin, started closing in on the Christian crusaders. On July 4, Saladin’s army engaged in the Battle of Hattin with the crusaders. During the battle, 20-40,000 Muslim soldiers fought against 18-20,000 Christians. Due to their superior numbers, the Muslims […]

Frederick I: The Mighty Emperor

Frederick I was born in 1123 to Duke Frederick II of Swabia and Judith of Bavaria. His parents were members of rival German dynasties. Frederick II was a Hohenstaufen while Judith a Welf. Through their marriage, young Frederick was seen as the embodiment of both houses. As a result, his family and dynastic lineage would help him gain power later […]

Louis I: The Pious Emperor

Louis I was born on April 16, 778 in Aquitaine, West Francia (France). As a member of the Carolingian dynasty, he was destined to one day rule. His father, Charlemagne, controlled vast territories. To better govern his lands, Charlemagne decided to create subkingdoms. Each of his three sons would rule a sub-kingdom on their father’s behalf. As a result, Louis […]

Otto I: The Great Emperor

Otto I was born on November 23, 912, to Duke Henry of Saxony and his wife, Matilda. In 919, his father became the king of Germany. While in his late teens, Otto married the English king’s daughter, Edith, in 930. As Henry lay dying in 936, he chose his first-born son as his successor. After his death, Otto became the […]

Charlemagne: The Father of Europe

His kingdom would unite western Europe and end the Dark Ages. Charlemagne was born in 747 as the son of Austrasian King Pepin the Short. At the age of 19, he inherited his deceased father’s territory and jointly ruled it with his brother Carloman. Pepin intended for his sons to cooperate as rulers, but they had an uneasy relationship. After […]