England

English people and events during the European Middle Ages.

Richard II of England: The Tyrant King

Richard II was born on January 6, 1367 in Bordeaux, France. His father, Edward the Black Prince, was the son and heir of King Edward III of England. The younger of Prince Edward’s sons, Richard was initially third in line to the English throne. However, the prince experienced a rapid rise in the succession during the 1370s. Richard’s elder brother, […]

The Battle of Crecy

The Battle of Crecy originated on February 1, 1328, with King Charles IV of France’s death. Since the king died without leaving behind a son, the Capetian dynasty ended. As a result, the question of succession arose amongst the French. After much debate, the succession came down to Philip of Valois and King Edward III of England. Philip of Valois […]

Edward IV of England: The Yorkist King

Edward IV was born on April 28, 1442, to Richard, Duke of York, and Cecily Neville. Through his father, Edward descended from two of King Edward III’s sons: Lionel and Edmund. At the time of his birth, the Lancastrian King Henry VI ruled England. Henry’s grandfather, Henry IV, had overthrown his cousin, Richard II, in September 1399. In turn, his […]

The Battle of Bouvines

Sixty years before the Battle of Bouvines, Henry II of England established the Angevin Empire. Through inheritance and marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine, the king brought England and Western France under his control in 1154. Alarmed by this development, Louis VII of France sought to undermine the empire. Although the king spent his reign attempting to, he ultimately proved unsuccessful. […]

The Hundred Years’ War

The Hundred Years’ War originated in 1328 after the death of King Charles IV of France. Since the king died without a male heir, the Capetian dynasty ended with him. In response, a French assembly had to decide who would succeed Charles. Under French Salic law, a female couldn’t inherit the throne. Therefore, the assembly’s decision narrowed down to Philip […]