English people and events during the European Middle Ages.

The Battle of Bouvines

Background Sixty years before the Battle of Bouvines, Henry II of England established the Angevin Empire. Through inheritance and marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine, the king brought England and Western France under his control in 1154. Alarmed by this development, Louis VII of France sought to undermine the empire. Although the king spent his reign attempting to, he ultimately proved […]

The Hundred Years’ War

Background The Hundred Years’ War originated in 1328 after the death of King Charles IV of France. Since the king died without a male heir, the Capetian dynasty ended with him. In response, a French assembly had to decide who would succeed Charles. Under French Salic law, a female couldn’t inherit the throne. Therefore, the assembly’s decision narrowed down to […]

Margaret of Anjou: The Ambitious Queen

Early Life Margaret of Anjou was born on March 23, 1430 in Lorraine, France. As the daughter of Duke Rene of Anjou and Isabella of Lorraine, Margaret had royal blood in her veins. During her childhood, France engaged in a prolonged conflict with England, known as the Hundred Years’ War. Although the war had initially begun in 1337, fighting had […]

The Battle of Bosworth Field

Background Thirty years before the Battle of Bosworth Field, a civil war began in England. Known as the War of the Roses, the conflict revolved around which faction of the Plantagenet royal family should rule: Lancastrian or Yorkist. In 1455, the Lancastrian king, Henry VI, reigned. His grandfather, Henry IV, had established the Lancastrian branch after overthrowing his cousin, Richard […]

The Third Crusade (1187-1192)

Background The Third Crusade originated in 1187. During 1187, the Christian kingdom of Jerusalem was surrounded. Muslim forces, led by the formidable Saladin, started closing in on the Christian crusaders. On July 4, Saladin’s army engaged in the Battle of Hattin with the crusaders. During the battle, 20-40,000 Muslim soldiers fought against 18-20,000 Christians. Due to their superior numbers, the […]