Joan I of Naples: The Headstrong Queen

Joan I was born in 1326. Her grandfather, King Robert, ruled Naples from the early to mid-1300s. During his reign, Naples experienced economic prosperity and stability. Robert encouraged learning, and his kingdom flourished as a center of education. Due to his respected leadership, the king became known as Robert the Wise. Towards the end of his reign, Robert faced a […]

Afonso I of Portugal: The Founder King

Afonso I was born between 1109/1111 in Guimaraes, Portucale (Portugal). Through his parents, the young nobleman had a prestigious pedigree. Afonso’s father, Henry of Burgundy, descended from the French Capetian dynasty. Afonso’s mother, Teresa, was Emperor Alfonso VI of Leon’s illegitimate daughter. Henry of Burgundy had initially come to Portucale through a family connection. Alfonso’s wife, Queen Constance, was Henry’s […]