Peter I of Portugal: The Just King

Peter I was born on April 8, 1320 to King Afonso IV of Portugal. In 1340, the prince became infatuated with his wife’s lady-in-waiting, Ines de Castro. Ines was a beautiful Galician noblewoman. Although related, Peter and Ines started a relationship. Upon his wife’s death, Peter began to live openly with Ines. The Prince eventually came into conflict with his […]

Alexander VI: The Sinful Pope

Alexander VI was born around 1431 as Rodrigo Borgia in Jativa, Spain. At a young age, Rodrigo came under the supervision of his uncle, Alonso de Borgia. As the Bishop of Valencia, Alonso oversaw his nephew’s education. When Rodrigo became a teenager, Alonso began to reward his nephew with church offices. As a result, Rodrigo received his first taste of […]

Henry V: The Ineffective Emperor

Emperor Henry V was born on August 11, 1086. The second son of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, Prince Henry’s elder brother, Conrad, initially served as their father’s heir. However, when Conrad revolted against the emperor, Henry became the new heir. On January 6, 1099, Henry succeeded Conrad as the King of Germany. During Henry IV’s reign, the emperor continually […]

The Hundred Years’ War

The Hundred Years’ War originated in 1328 after the death of King Charles IV of France. Since the king died without a male heir, the Capetian dynasty ended with him. In response, a French assembly had to decide who would succeed Charles. Under French Salic law, a female couldn’t inherit the throne. Therefore, the assembly’s decision narrowed down to Philip […]