Margaret of Anjou: The Ambitious Queen

Margaret of Anjou was born on March 23, 1430 in Lorraine, France. As the daughter of Duke Rene of Anjou and Isabella of Lorraine, Margaret had royal blood in her veins. During her childhood, France engaged in a prolonged conflict with England, known as the Hundred Years’ War. Although the war had initially begun in 1337, fighting had resumed in […]

Louis VII of France: The Unfortunate King

Louis VII was born around 1120 as the son of King Louis VI of France. As the king’s second son, Prince Louis was initially destined for a church career. However, after his elder brother, Philip, died in 1131, Louis became his father’s new heir. Before Louis VI’s death in 1137, the king had his son marry the wealthy heiress Eleanor […]

Afonso IV of Portugal: The Brave King

Afonso IV was born on February 8, 1291 in Lisbon, Portugal. Although King Dinis’ only legitimate son, Afonso resented his father’s preference for his illegitimate son, Afonso Sanches. As Afonso aged, his resentment towards Dinis turned into open hostility. The prince suspected that his father wanted to replace him with his brother. By 1320, the frustrated prince demanded that his […]

Boniface VIII: The Strong-Willed Pope

Boniface VIII was born around 1235 as Benedetto Caetani in Anagni, Italy. The Caetanis were an established and noble family. As Benedetto got older, he first studied law before entering the service of the papal government. Throughout his time in government, Benedetto gradually transitioned from lawyer to priest. Growing Prominence In 1281, Pope Martin IV elevated Benedetto to St. Nicholas’ […]

The Battle of Bosworth Field

Thirty years before the Battle of Bosworth Field, a civil war began in England. Known as the Wars of the Roses, the conflict revolved around which faction of the Plantagenet royal family should rule: Lancastrian or Yorkist. In 1455, the Lancastrian king, Henry VI, reigned. His grandfather, Henry IV, had established the Lancastrian branch after overthrowing his cousin, Richard II, […]