The Third Crusade (1187-1192)

Background The Third Crusade originated in 1187. During 1187, the Christian kingdom of Jerusalem was surrounded. Muslim forces, led by the formidable Saladin, started closing in on the Christian crusaders. On July 4, Saladin’s army engaged in the Battle of Hattin with the crusaders. During the battle, 20-40,000 Muslim soldiers fought against 18-20,000 Christians. Due to their superior numbers, the […]

Richard I of England: The Crusader King

Early Life Richard I was born on September 8, 1157 in Oxford, England. The second surviving son of King Henry II and Queen Eleanor, the prince inherited his mother’s duchy of Aquitaine in 1168. As his mother’s favorite son, Eleanor raised Richard in Aquitaine. Meanwhile, Henry controlled the Angevin Empire, which consisted of Western France and England. Despite giving his […]

Malcolm IV of Scotland: The Maiden King

Early Life Malcolm IV was born during 1141 to Prince Henry of Scotland. At the time of his birth, Malcolm’s paternal grandfather, King David I, reigned. The first of Henry’s sons, the young prince was initially third in the line of succession. However, the unexpected death of his father in 1152, made Malcolm his grandfather’s heir. Upon David’s death the […]

Charles V of France: The Wise King

Early Life Charles V was born on January 21, 1338 in Vincennes, France. In 1349, Charles’ father, King John II, purchased the region of Dauphine for his young son. Located on France’s southern border, the prince became known as the dauphin. As a result, a new royal tradition had begun. Subsequent heirs to the French throne would also be called […]