Frederick I: The Mighty Emperor

Frederick I was born in 1123 to Duke Frederick II of Swabia and Judith of Bavaria. His parents were members of rival German dynasties. Frederick II was a Hohenstaufen while Judith a Welf. Through their marriage, young Frederick was seen as the embodiment of both houses. As a result, his family and dynastic lineage would help him gain power later […]

Henry III of England: The Restrained King

Henry III was born on October 1, 1207 to John of England and Isabella of Angouleme. At the time of his son’s birth, John’s popularity had already begun to decline. Although his capable mother, Eleanor, advised him, John continuously made bad decisions, which angered the English nobility. When he died in 1216, the king had lost the Angevin Empire that […]

Charles VII of France: The Victorious King

Charles VII was born on February 22, 1403 in Paris, France. As the eleventh child of King Charles VI, Prince Charles wasn’t expected to inherit the French throne. During his childhood, King Charles suffered from periods of insanity. As a result, the government became unstable and a civil war erupted. In 1413, Prince Charles married Marie of Anjou and began […]

John II of Portugal: The Fierce King

John II was born in 1455 to King Afonso V. Descending from King John I, Prince John was a fourth-generation member of the Aviz dynasty. As his father’s only surviving son, the prince became heir apparent upon his birth. During the 1470s, John gained military experience while participating in his father’s African campaign. The king later entrusted the prince with […]

Louis I: The Pious Emperor

Louis I was born on April 16, 778 in Aquitaine, West Francia (France). As a member of the Carolingian dynasty, he was destined to one day rule. His father, Charlemagne, controlled vast territories. To better govern his lands, Charlemagne decided to create subkingdoms. Each of his three sons would rule a sub-kingdom on their father’s behalf. As a result, Louis […]