Cesare Borgia: The Papal Prince

Cruelty and ruthlessness defined his life. Cesare Borgia’s birth and birthplace are uncertain. However, it’s believed that he was born around 1475 in Rome. The second of four illegitimate children, Cesare was the son of Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia and noblewoman Vanozza Catanei. As the second son, Cesare’s career path lay with the church. Because of this, he received a religious […]

Isabella of France: The Scorned Queen

Her vengeance caused the overthrow of an English king. The only daughter of King Philip IV, Isabella of France, was born in 1295. During the 1290s, Philip fought against King Edward I of England over the duchy of Gascony. The French king wanted to assert his authority over Edward by confiscating Gascony. However, an angry Edward fought back. Thus, a […]

Philip IV of France: The Ruthless King

His desire to always maintain his authority led him into many conflicts. Philip IV was born in Fontainebleu, France in 1268. At the time of his birth, Philip’s father, Prince Philip, hadn’t yet ascended to the throne. However, that all changed when his father, King Louis IX, died on August 25, 1270. Shortly after Louis’s death, Philip III’s wife Isabella […]

The Battle of Agincourt

The Battle of Agincourt originated in 1328. On February 1, 1328, King Charles IV of France died without an heir. Upon his death, a French assembly formed to appoint a male successor. The two candidates with the strongest claims were Edward III of England, who was the son of Charles’s sister, and Philip, Charles’s paternal cousin. Ultimately, the assembly chose […]