Malcolm III of Scotland: The Raider King

His reign established a dynasty that ruled Scotland for centuries. Malcolm III of Scotland was born in 1031. As the son of King Duncan I of Scotland, Malcolm was the heir apparent. However, his status as heir would be threatened by a relative named Macbeth. Macbeth was Duncan’s cousin. In 1040, Macbeth killed the king and seized the crown. After […]

The Fall of Constantinople

The fall of Constantinople in 1453 shook Europe to its core. However, its causes can be traced back centuries prior. During the 12th century, the Byzantine Empire began to decline. For over 300 years, its capital’s population decreased from 400,000 to 40-50,000. As a result of multiple sieges, Constantinople’s citizens either died or had to migrate. As Constantinople’s population dropped, […]

Henry II of England: The Controlling King

His desire for control would cause his downfall. Henry II of England was born during 1133 in Le Mans, France. His father, Geoffrey Plantagenet, was the count of Anjou, Maine, and Touraine. His mother, Matilda, was the daughter of King Henry I of England. Matilda instilled in her son the belief that he was destined to inherit the English throne. […]

Louis IX of France: The Saint King

His legacy earned him the unique title of saint king. Louis IX of France was born on April 25, 1214 in Poissy, France. His parents were Prince Louis and Blanche of Castile. As the couple’s fourth child, Louis wasn’t expected to inherit the throne. However, after the deaths of his older siblings, Louis became the heir. As heir, Louis’s parents […]

Joan of Arc: The Divine Warrior

Her call from God would turn the tide of a war. Joan of Arc was born in 1412 in Domremy, France. As a farmer’s daughter, Joan grew up a peasant along the borders of Bar and Lorraine. During the 1410s, the French and English fought a series of battles throughout France. The conflict revolved around the French crown and became […]